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Embracing Customer-Centric Transformation – The Story of LEGO

Building Beyond Business: How LEGO’s Meaning-Driven Model Redefines Success

In the fast-paced world of business, companies often emphasize competitive edge and customer service. Yet, many fail to address a crucial question: why does their company truly matter? In a world teeming with options, what makes a business stand out isn’t just service quality, but its inherent meaning and relevance to its customers. This article explores how LEGO, a company renowned for its customer-centric approach and continuous transformation, has leveraged these qualities to create a business model that thrives even in challenging times.

The traditional view of business models focuses heavily on outperforming competitors and delivering value to customers. However, this perspective misses a critical element – the ‘why’ behind a company’s existence. The real challenge lies in identifying the unique meaning that makes a company indispensable to its customers, employees, and the broader community.


“We remain fully focused on our ambition to inspire and develop more children around the world. We are proud to be in a strong financial position to deliver on this mission today and invest to ensure we continue to deliver for many generations in the future”

Niels B Christiansen, CEO of LEGO Group

The LEGO Paradigm:

LEGO’s journey offers a compelling case study in this context. Known for its plastic building blocks, LEGO has become more than just a toy manufacturer; it represents a hub for creativity and learning. This transformation didn’t happen overnight. It was the result of deeply understanding and empathizing with their customers’ desires – not just for toys, but for tools that stimulate imagination and learning.

LEGO’s success in continuously adapting to market demands illustrates the importance of listening to customers. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, LEGO faced a critical phase with declining sales and relevance. However, by re-engaging with its core audience and innovating based on customer feedback, LEGO transformed its business model. They expanded into video games, movies, and even theme parks, all the while staying true to their core value of fostering creativity.

Timeline of LEGO’s Transformation

  • 1. Early Beginnings (1932-1958)

    • 1932: Ole Kirk Christiansen founded LEGO in Billund, Denmark.
    • 1949: Introduction of the Automatic Binding Bricks, the early version of LEGO bricks.
    • 1958: Patenting of the modern LEGO brick design.
  • 2. Expansion and Innovation (1959-1990)

    • 1960s: Expansion of LEGO product line with new sets and themes.
    • 1978: Introduction of the first LEGO Minifigures.
    • 1980s: LEGO begins to diversify with the launch of themed sets like LEGO Space and LEGO Castle.
  • 3. Financial Crisis and Near-Bankruptcy (1990s-2004)

    • Late 1990s: Facing increasing competition, LEGO expands into markets like video games, movies, and theme parks, but struggles with financial losses.
    • 2003-2004: LEGO nears bankruptcy, with a reported loss of DKK 1.4 billion in 2003.
  • 4. Restructuring and Refocusing (2005-2010)

    • 2005: Jørgen Vig Knudstorp becomes CEO, initiating major restructuring.
    • 2005-2010: LEGO refocuses on core products and reduces costs, leading to a dramatic turnaround in profitability.
  • 5. Innovation and Growth (2011-Present)

    • 2011: Launch of LEGO Ninjago, a major success.
    • 2014: Release of “The LEGO Movie”, a blockbuster hit, revitalizing the brand.
    • 2015-2020: Continued expansion into digital platforms and educational products.
    • 2023: LEGO remains a leader in creativity and innovation, with a strong focus on educational and sustainable products.

This timeline encapsulates LEGO’s journey from a small Danish company to a global leader in creative play, highlighting its ability to adapt, innovate, and stay relevant in a constantly changing market.

Beyond the Numbers: LEGO’s Holistic Business Approach

A. Customer-Centric Innovation

  • Listening to the Audience: LEGO’s turnaround is largely attributed to its renewed focus on customer feedback. The company actively sought input from its core audience – children – and their parents, understanding their preferences and evolving interests.
  • Product Evolution: Based on customer insights, LEGO continually evolved its product lines, introducing sets that catered to various interests, from traditional building blocks to themed sets like LEGO Harry Potter and LEGO Star Wars, appealing to both children and adults.
  • Quality and Safety: Despite financial challenges, LEGO maintained its commitment to high-quality, safe products, understanding that trust and brand integrity were paramount in retaining customer loyalty.

B. Strategic Brand Collaborations

  • Partnerships: LEGO forged strategic partnerships with popular franchises, enhancing its market appeal. These collaborations, like those with Marvel and DC Comics, brought in new customers and re-engaged lapsed fans.
  • Educational Alliances: Collaborations with educational institutions to promote STEM learning through LEGO products further expanded its market and reinforced its commitment to educational development.

C. Sustainable Practices

  • Environmental Commitment: LEGO demonstrated a commitment to sustainability, aiming to reduce its carbon footprint and transitioning to renewable energy sources. This approach resonated with environmentally conscious consumers.
  • Sustainable Materials: The company invested in research to replace traditional plastic with sustainable materials, aligning with global environmental concerns and adding a new dimension of corporate responsibility to its brand image.

D. Digital Transformation

  • Video Games and Mobile Apps: LEGO ventured into digital spaces with video games and mobile apps, effectively connecting with the tech-savvy younger generation.
  • LEGO Digital Designer: This tool allowed users to design their own LEGO sets virtually, fostering creativity and interaction with the brand beyond physical products.

E. Community Engagement and Brand Experience

  • LEGO Clubs and Magazines: These platforms offered a way for fans to engage with each other and the brand, sharing creations and ideas, thus building a strong LEGO community.
  • LEGOland Theme Parks: These parks provided an immersive brand experience, turning LEGO into a lifestyle choice, not just a product.

F. Financial Resilience and Long-term Vision

  • Financial Strategy: Post-restructuring, LEGO focused on sustainable growth rather than short-term gains, ensuring financial stability and resilience.
  • Continued Innovation and Expansion: LEGO’s investment in new product lines and experiences kept the brand relevant and competitive, ensuring its market position in the long term.

G. Employee Engagement and Corporate Culture

  • Employee Involvement: LEGO fostered a culture of innovation among its employees, encouraging them to contribute ideas and be part of the brand’s evolution.
  • Workplace Environment: By creating a positive and creative work environment, LEGO ensured a motivated workforce, which was crucial for its turnaround and ongoing success.

H. Broader Impact and Social Responsibility

  • Community Initiatives: LEGO’s involvement in community projects and educational initiatives underscored its commitment to having a positive social impact.
  • Promoting Creativity and Learning: Beyond just selling toys, LEGO positioned itself as a catalyst for creativity and learning, aligning with broader educational and developmental goals.

LEGO’s story demonstrates that a company’s success is not solely measured by financial metrics, but also by how it resonates with and contributes to the well-being of its customers, employees, and society at large. This holistic approach to business has not only helped LEGO survive but thrive, establishing it as a beloved and enduring brand.

Implementing the Concept Essence: LEGO’s Strategic Execution and Performance

A. Clarifying the Concept Essence

  • Defining Purpose: LEGO crystallized its concept essence around “inspiring and developing the builders of tomorrow.” This vision went beyond toy production to emphasize creativity, education, and personal development.
  • Customer-Centricity: The essence was implemented through a deep understanding of customer needs, aspirations, and evolving trends, ensuring that LEGO’s products and experiences remained relevant and engaging.

B. Translating Essence into Action

  • Product Design and Innovation: LEGO’s commitment to this essence was evident in its product lines, which were continuously innovated to encourage creativity, problem-solving, and storytelling.
  • Brand Experiences: Through LEGOland theme parks and interactive exhibitions, the company offered immersive experiences that embodied its essence, enhancing its appeal to families and LEGO enthusiasts.

C. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) Improvements

  • Increased Sales and Market Share: Following its restructuring and refocusing on the concept essence, LEGO saw a significant increase in global sales, regaining and expanding its market share in the toy industry.
  • Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: Customer satisfaction metrics improved, as reflected in repeat purchases and positive reviews. LEGO’s engagement strategies, like interactive platforms and clubs, fostered a loyal customer base.
  • Brand Recognition and Reputation: LEGO consistently ranked high in global brand recognition surveys, reflecting its strong positioning in the eyes of customers.

D. Positioning in the Eyes of the Customer

  • Innovative and Educational Brand Image: Customers perceived LEGO as a brand that not only provided entertainment but also contributed to learning and development, aligning with modern educational values.
  • Sustainable and Responsible Company: LEGO’s initiatives in sustainability and community engagement positively impacted its image, portraying it as a socially responsible brand.
  • Culturally Relevant and Diverse Offerings: With its diverse product ranges and inclusive designs, LEGO appealed to a wide demographic, from children to adult collectors, enhancing its universal appeal.

E. Ongoing Adaptation and Evolution

  • Responsive to Market Trends: LEGO’s agility in responding to market changes, such as the rise in digitalization and eco-consciousness, kept it ahead of industry trends.
  • Employee Involvement in Innovation: The company encouraged a culture of innovation among its employees, who played a vital role in keeping the essence alive through new ideas and initiatives.

F. Communication and Brand Messaging

  • Consistent Brand Messaging: LEGO’s marketing and communication strategies consistently echoed its concept essence, reinforcing its commitment to creativity, education, and social responsibility.
  • Engaging Storytelling: Through storytelling in its marketing campaigns, LEGO connected emotionally with its audience, making the brand more relatable and memorable.

G. Measuring Success Beyond Financials

  • Impact on Education and Creativity: LEGO’s success was also measured by its impact on promoting creativity and education among children worldwide.
  • Community and Environmental Contributions: The company’s efforts in sustainability and community projects added another layer to its success metrics, aligning with broader societal values.

By effectively implementing its concept essence, LEGO not only improved key performance indicators but also repositioned itself in the global market as a brand that stands for innovation, education, and social responsibility. This strategic approach enabled LEGO to resonate deeply with customers, creating a strong and enduring brand connection.

Where is LEGO now?

LEGO’s financial performance for the first half of 2023 shows a mix of challenges and strengths which reinforces the need to continuously improve and establish strategic resilience:

  1. Growth and Profitability: Compared to the previous two years, LEGO experienced a slowdown in growth and profitability. Consumer sales increased by 3% from the previous year, but revenue only grew by 1%, resulting in sales of 27.4 billion DKK (approximately US$3.99 billion). The net profit declined to 5.1 billion DKK (about US$0.74 billion), a decrease of 17.74% compared to 6.2 billion DKK (US$0.9 billion) in the previous year. The decline in net profit is attributed to rising costs and potentially increased discounts offered by LEGO​​​​.
  2. Investment and Strategy: Despite these challenges, LEGO continued to invest heavily, spending 3.6 billion DKK on property, plants, equipment, and intangible assets. These investments were likely for new manufacturing facilities in Virginia, USA, and Vietnam, and for expanding the capacity of existing factories. The company’s decision not to decrease investment or lay off staff highlights its operational strategy and long-term focus​​​​.
  3. Market Performance and Initiatives: LEGO’s market share grew significantly as it outperformed a declining toy market. The company’s portfolio in 2023 included more than 750 products, with top performing themes like LEGO® Icons, LEGO Star Wars™, and LEGO Technic™. LEGO also continued its partnership with Epic Games to create digital experiences for children. The brand was recognized as the most reputable brand in the world by RepTrak in April​​.
  4. Financial Overview: LEGO’s operating profit for the first half of 2023 was DKK 6.4 billion, down from DKK 7.9 billion in the previous year. The company’s free cash flow was DKK 1.1 billion, reflecting investments in global manufacturing capacity and technology upgrades. These financial results show LEGO’s commitment to long-term strategic initiatives, including manufacturing, digitalization, and sustainability​​.

We are satisfied with our performance; especially as it has been a challenging six months for the toy industry. Demand for our products saw us outpace the industry and significantly grow market share. Our strong financial position allows us to invest for the long term, particularly in areas such as digital, sustainability, and manufacturing. Overall, our performance is in line with expectations, after three consecutive years of extraordinary growth, and we are grateful for our great colleagues who work each day to inspire children through play”.

Niels B Christiansen, CEO of LEGO Group:

Overall, LEGO’s financial performance in the first half of 2023 indicates a period of strategic investment and market strength, despite challenges in growth and profitability. The company’s focus on innovation, digital transformation, and sustainability positions it well for long-term success in the evolving toy industry.

CDO TIMES Bottom Line: LEGO’s Strategic Resilience and Market Success

1. Embracing a Holistic Business Philosophy:

  • LEGO’s transformation showcases the power of a business model that goes beyond financial metrics. By integrating creativity, education, and social responsibility into its core philosophy, LEGO has established itself as a brand with a purpose, resonating deeply with consumers across various demographics.

2. Customer-Centric Approach as a Success Driver:

  • The company’s customer-focused strategy, which involved actively listening to and incorporating feedback, has been instrumental in its turnaround. This approach not only revived its product lines but also fortified customer loyalty, proving that understanding and valuing customer needs are crucial for long-term success.

3. Innovation and Adaptability:

  • LEGO’s continuous innovation, both in product development and digital transformation, has kept it at the forefront of the toy industry. Its ability to adapt to changing market trends and consumer preferences underscores the importance of agility and foresight in business strategy.

4. Sustainable Practices and Social Responsibility:

  • LEGO’s commitment to sustainability and community engagement has not only improved its brand image but also aligned it with the growing global focus on environmental and social governance (ESG). This approach demonstrates how corporate responsibility can contribute to a company’s appeal and relevance in the modern market.

5. Financial Resilience Through Value Creation:

  • The financial turnaround and growth of LEGO, following its strategic restructuring, highlight the effectiveness of a value-driven business model. LEGO’s focus on creating long-term value rather than short-term gains has ensured its financial resilience and market leadership.

6. Educational Impact and Community Engagement:

  • LEGO’s impact extends beyond the realm of business into education and community development. By positioning itself as a tool for learning and creativity, LEGO has contributed significantly to the educational sector, enhancing its societal value.

7. The Role of Corporate Culture and Employee Engagement:

  • The transformation journey of LEGO also emphasizes the role of a positive and innovative corporate culture. Employee engagement and involvement in the company’s vision have been key factors in driving its success and sustaining its innovative edge.

8. Building a Legacy and Setting Industry Standards:

  • LEGO has not just survived market challenges; it has thrived and set new standards in the toy industry. Its journey from near bankruptcy to becoming a global leader is a testament to the power of a meaningful, customer-focused, and socially responsible business approach.

Final Analysis: LEGO’s story is a powerful example for C-level executives looking to steer their companies through challenging times and competitive markets. It illustrates that integrating purpose, customer-centricity, innovation, and social responsibility into the business model can lead to remarkable resilience, growth, and a lasting legacy. This approach can serve as a blueprint for businesses aiming to achieve not just financial success but also a meaningful and enduring impact in their industries and communities.

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Carsten Krause

As the CDO of The CDO TIMES I am dedicated delivering actionable insights to our readers, explore current and future trends that are relevant to leaders and organizations undertaking digital transformation efforts. Besides writing about these topics we also help organizations make sense of all of the puzzle pieces and deliver actionable roadmaps and capabilities to stay future proof leveraging technology. Contact us at: to get in touch.

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